Tools to Investigate SARS-CoV-2 Infection
COVID-19 is caused by the newly discovered coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, previously called 2019-nCoV. It belongs to the Coronaviridae family and is broadly distributed in humans and other mammals. Unlike some known coronaviruses such as hCoV-229E, OC43, and HKU1 that cause mild respiratory diseases; SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS cause severe to fatal respiratory disease .
Why is SARS-CoV-2 spreading faster than its two ancestors? What makes SARS-Cov-2 lethal? Recent publications have shown that there are some significant genomic and immunologic responses between them. The key markers involved in these interactions include Spike protein (S), Nucleocapsid (N), Angeotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor, (FES upstream region) FURIN protease in addition to the cytokines.
Spike Protein (S): SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells through the Spike mediated interaction with ACE2 cell receptor. Any changes in the gene sequence can impact this interaction.
Learn more about the purified recombinant Spike Protein (S).
Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2): This is a serine protease that cleaves and activates the viral spike glycoproteins which facilitates virus-cell membrane fusions. A recent study showed that SARS-CoV-2 needs both ACE2 receptor and serine protease TMPRSS2 for protein priming to enter the cell.
Tools for analyzing TMPRSS2
Nucleocapsid: The nucleocapsid phosphoprotein packages the viral genome into a helical ribonucelocapsid, thus playing a crucial role in viral self-assembly.
Tools for analyzing the Nucleocapsid: Proteins for WB, IHC, ELISA
ACE-2 receptor: ACE-2 is the host cell receptor responsible for mediating infection by SARS-CoV-2.
Tools for analyzing ACE-2 protein
- Human Recombinant Protein Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE2)
- ACE-2 specific Mouse Monoclonal Antibody
- ACE-2 Human ORF clones
Find out more about the additional ACE-2 specific tools here
Furin: It is a protease present in many human organs that recognizes and activates a specific site on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, thus facilitating a tighter binding to the ACE-2 receptor and might play a role in the higher infection rate .
How can you analyze Furin? Learn about the tools for analyzing Furin.